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    发布时间:2019-07-04 15:07:12   来源:本站原创   点击量:
    In 2019, a big technology shift will finally begin. It’s a once-in-a-decade upgrade to our wireless systems that will start reaching mobile phone users in a matter of months.
    But this is not just about faster smartphones. The transition to new fifth-generation cellular networks — known as 5G for short — will also affect many other kinds of devices, including industrial robots, security cameras, drones and cars that send traffic data to one another. This new era will leap ahead of current wireless technology, known as 4G, by offering mobile internet speeds that will let people download entire movies within seconds and most likely bring big changes to video games, sports and shopping.
    Officials in the United States and China see 5G networks as a competitive edge. The faster networks could help spread the use of artificial intelligence and other cutting-edge technologies.
    Expect to hear more about 5G soon at events like the big consumer electronics trade show CES in January in Las Vegas and MWC Barcelona (formerly the Mobile World Congress) in February in Spain. Wireless service providers including AT&T and Verizon are already talking up 5G. And device makers are previewing gadgets that will work with the technology.
    Samsung recently demonstrated prototypes of 5G smartphones that are expected to operate on both Verizon and AT&T networks. Many other manufacturers are racing to follow suit, though Apple is not expected in the initial 5G wave. Analysts predict that iPhones with the new technology won’t arrive until 2020. An Apple spokeswoman declined to comment.
    Here’s what you need to know.
    What exactly is 5G?
    Strictly speaking, 5G is a set of technical ground rules that define the workings of a cellular network, including the radio frequencies used and how various components like computer chips and antennas handle radio signals and exchange data.
    Since the first cellphones were demonstrated in the 1970s, engineers from multiple companies have convened to agree on new sets of specifications for cellular networks, which are designated a new technology generation every decade or so. To get the benefits of 5G, users will have to buy new phones, while carriers will need to install new transmission equipment to offer the faster service.
    How fast will 5G be?
    The answer depends on where you live, which wireless services you use and when you decide to take the 5G plunge.
    Qualcomm, the wireless chipmaker, said it had demonstrated peak 5G download speeds of 4.5 gigabits a second, but predicts initial median speeds of about 1.4 gigabits. That translates to roughly 20 times faster than the current 4G experience.
    The 5G speeds will be particularly noticeable in higher-quality streaming video. And downloading a typical movie at the median speeds cited by Qualcomm would take 17 seconds with 5G, compared with six minutes for 4G.
    Rather than remembering to download a season of a favorite TV show before heading to the airport, for example, you could do it while in line to board a plane, said Justin Denison, a Samsung senior vice president.
    三星******副总裁贾斯汀·丹尼森(Justin Denison)说,你不必在前往机场前,记着下载好某一季***喜爱的电视节目,你可以在比如排队登机时下载。
    Is that the only speed that matters?
    No. There’s another kind of speed, a lag known as latency, that may become even more important with 5G.
    Issue a command now on a smartphone — like starting a web search — and the response isn’t exactly immediate. A lag of 50 to several hundred milliseconds is common, partly because signals often must pass between different carrier switching centers; 5G, which uses newer networking technology, was designed to reduce latency down to a few milliseconds. It was also designed to deliver signals more reliably than earlier cellular networks, which today frequently drop bits of data that aren’t essential for tasks like watching movies on a phone.
    That improvement could bring many benefits, notably in fields such as virtual reality. The highest-quality VR applications now typically require bulky headsets that are connected by wire to nearby personal computers that generate 3D images. With 5G, that would be off-loaded wirelessly to other machines, freeing users to move and making it easier to develop goggles the size of eyeglasses, said Cristiano Amon, president of Qualcomm’s semiconductor business.
    这种改进可带来很多益处,比较显著的是在虚拟现实这类领域。******质量的虚拟现实应用现在一般都要配备笨重的头具,以有线方式接到附近生成3D图像的个人计算机上。高通半导体业务总裁克里斯蒂亚诺·阿蒙(Cristiano Amon)说,有了5G***可以无线连接到其它机器上,使用户可以自由移动,也可以更容易开发出眼镜大小的目镜。
    In the related field of augmented reality, people could point a smartphone camera at a football game and see both live video on the display and superimposed player statistics or other data, said Patrick Moorhead, an analyst at Moor Insights & Strategy.
    穆尔咨询和战略公司(Moor Insights & Strategy)分析师帕特里克·穆尔黑德(Patrick Moorhead)说,在增强现实(AR)的相关领域,人们可以用智能手机的摄像头对准一场足球比赛,在显示屏上观看直播视频的同时,可以看叠加的球员统计数据或其它数据。
    And 5G’s impact extends to medicine and other fields that increasingly rely on high-speed connections.
    “If you talk about remote surgery or connected cars, you don’t want latency times to be too long,” said Fredrik Jejdling, an executive vice president at Ericsson, a maker of cellular equipment.
    “要说到远程手术或联网汽车,你可不想有太多延迟,”手机设备制造商爱立信公司(Ericsson)执行副总裁弗雷德里克·杰德林(Fredrik Jejdling)说。
    When will 5G be here?
    The answer for smartphone users in the United States appears to be by the second quarter of 2019; precise timing is uncertain.
    Countries expected to follow the United States with 2019 rollouts of 5G include Britain, Germany, Switzerland, China, South Korea and Australia, according to a timetable compiled by Qualcomm.
    Will consumers see the full benefits of 5G?
    Verizon and AT&T will introduce their 5G offerings with the first use of high frequencies that are known by the phrase “millimeter wave.” Using this, the wireless providers can pump data at high speeds, but the signals don’t travel as far. So the two carriers are expected to first target densely populated areas — “parts or pockets” of cities, as AT&T’s Fuetsch put it.
    威瑞森和AT&T将在它们的5G产品中******使用称为“毫米波”的高频技术。利用这一点,无线服务提供商可以高速传输送数据,但信号能传输的距离有限。因此,预计这两家运营商将首先瞄准人口密集的地区——用AT&T的安德烈·富奇(Andre Fuetsch)的话来说,***是城市的“部分地区”。
    Sprint and T-Mobile plan to start with lower frequencies. The result may be somewhat slower initial speeds but broader range, said Michael Thelander, president of Signals Research, a wireless consultancy.
    Sprint和T-Mobile计划从较低的频率开始。无线咨询公司信号研究(Signals Research)的总裁迈克尔·泰兰德(Michael Thelander)说,结果可能是初始速度有所减慢,但覆盖范围更广。
    Still, 5G’s full benefits aren’t expected until U.S. carriers upgrade key central switching equipment, which may not happen until late 2019 or sometime in 2020.
    So should I buy a smartphone that works with 5G right away?
    You have a lot to consider. For example, while Verizon and AT&T plan to later add 5G services based on lower frequencies that offer wider coverage, the first 5G handsets may not work with those portions of their networks. So the reach of 5G signals for those phones may remain limited.
    “I wouldn’t buy a 5G phone until it supports 5G in one of the lower-frequency bands,” Mr. Thelander said. “For all operators but Sprint, this means at least late 2019, and more likely 2020.”

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